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Originally the term was used interchangeably with the term zugpflicht 'obligation to make a move' as a general game rule.

Games like chess and checkers have "zugzwang" (or "zugpflicht"): a player MUST always make a move on his turn even if this is to his disadvantage.

When a perceived example of zugzwang occurred in the third game of the 1896–97 world championship match between Steinitz and Lasker, after 34... Qg7# Joseph Bertin refers to zugzwang in The Noble Game of Chess (1735), wherein he documents 19 rules about chess play. Soltis writes that his "candidate for the ideal zugzwang game" is the following game Soltis 1978, p.

Rg8, the Deutsche Schachzeitung (December 1896, page 368) reported that "White has died of zugzwang". His 18th rule is: "To play well the latter end of a game, you must calculate who has the move, on which the game always depends." François-André Danican Philidor wrote in 1777 of the position illustrated that after White plays 36.

Zugzwang typically occurs when "the player to move cannot do anything without making an important concession". Kd7 followed by queening the pawn on the next move. Black, on move, must allow White to play Kc5 or Ke5, when White wins one or more pawns and can advance his own pawn toward promotion.

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Normally in chess, having tempo is desirable because the player who is to move has the advantage of being able to choose a move that improves their situation.

A single L2d1 sequence from the Yemeni sample shares the haplotype that has so far been observed in Sudan and in southeastern Africa Ethiopian L2b sequences form a subset of a predominantly West African clade, distinguished from West African lineages by a transition @ np“16145″. Salas et al.) click link for Ethiopians/Yemenis (Horn of Africa) Gate of Tears mtdna study.

Blair Underwood – is a descendant of the Babungo people of Cameroon. Marcus Garvey – Maternal Dna traces back to Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, and Senegal his Paternal DNA traces to Iberia (Spain & Portugal).

L2a1b1- has (SOUTH AFRICA), (MOZAMBIQUE), (KUWAIT), (KENYA) Origins 22.

This group may also share genetic ancestry with other Indigenous Americans, as well as the Asiatic-African Moors of America. Morgan Freeman mt Dna shows relation to Niger with Songahai and the Tuaregs from the Sahara 2. Isaiah Washington- his (pops)- Sierra leone his (moms)- Angola. Quincy Jones mtdna L1c* Tikar and Igbo and the Bamileke who’s origins are from Sudan and Egypt.

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